Social Sciences - Agricultural Economics & Statistics

Study on economic assessment of indigenous farming systems, conducted in Meghalaya, Nagaland and Manipur indicated that all the existing farming systems were economically viable and operating at subsistence level of farming. The Zabo system in Nagaland was considered as the most resource conserving farming system by utilizing natural resources in appropriate manner. Adoption of Zabo system in the study area indicated that village institutions played better role in afforestation, sharing of water resources and reducing jhum area. The system can be replicated with certain modifications by integrating with the improved technologies.
The economic assessment of different cropping systems revealed that ginger based cropping system gave the highest returns per rupee investment, followed by soybean based cropping system. However, there is a scope to enhance the income by identifying and adopting improved and suitable varieties for different cropping system as well as agro-climatic zones.
Cropping pattern in NE states remains highly specialized to food grains. In Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, pulses and oil seeds gained area mainly through shift away from rice. Study found a low to moderate increase in cropping intensity in most of the NE states.
The diversification in Manipur was significantly affected by size of farm, education level of the farmers, output-input ratio, type of soil, irrigation facility and training. Size of farm and diversification were negatively related. Education level of the farmers, output-input ratio, type of soil, irrigation facility and training had positive influence on diversification. The KVKs in the North Eastern region may be associated for imparting training on improved technologies with special reference to diversification which will help farmers to get higher income as well as to meet their cash requirement.
To take the advantage of crop diversification in NEH Region there is a need to strengthen marketing, transport, communication and infrastructure facilities with Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode.
Ginger, turmeric, pineapple and cashewnut were identified as major potential crops for organic farming in the region. Although the region had strength of organic farming, the absence of forward and backward linkages restricted the popularization of organic farming. Majority of states of the region had shortage of organic inputs which are essential requirement for the promotion of organic cultivation.
The impact study on improved technology of horticultural crops demonstrated under technology mission, KVKs, Extension departments revealed that among all horticulture crops Megha Turmeric 1 was widely accepted and found to be more economical. The SHGs also emerged and started business on turmeric and ginger.
The study conducted under Jhum Project revealed that traditional rice varieties grown ten years back were 5 to 10 numbers which had been substantially reduced to 2 to 3 numbers at present. Hence there is a need to develop suitable rice varieties suitable for jhum area under different agro-climatic conditions. Besides, many programmes undertaken by various line departments and other agencies on controlling jhum area may be conversed to avoid duplicity and improving efficiency.
A study undertaken on vegetable crops indicated that marketable surplus of capsicum and tomato had been very high and it was mainly grown for the marketing purpose. Internal demand was found very low resulting farmers to get very low price at the time of higher production. Lower price issues needed to be addressed with the appropriate financial support and policy intervention.
Study on marketing of horticultural commodities under different supply chain revealed that marketing efficiency of passion fruit and anthurium flower could be increased 125 per cent if routed through Public-Private Partnership mode. Establishment of processing unit near the producing area, formation of more Grower’s Association/ Societies or Organization for specific crops to explore backward and forward linkages.
The supply of seed for large demonstration may be ensured through seed village programme in the region and KVKs may be advised to take up the programme of seed village under the supervision of Research Institutes.
Provisions for incentives, credit facilities, low cost storage, facilities for grading and standardization of produce, improvement and dissemination of proper marketing information, development of quick and efficient transport are the major steps that may be taken for the betterment of farmers.
Participatory Technology Development (PTD) programme on seed village concept was introduced in study area with the distribution of upland rice varieties like Bhalum 1 and 2, and lowland variety, Shahsarang to the farmers. Under this project a large quantity of seeds were produced and arrangement was made for buyback system. With this self-sufficiency in meeting out the need of seed for the particular locale was assured, as the scale was well known to the participating farmers.
An AC lab of 10 computers (installed SAS and other statistical software’s) along with projector and UPS backup of 2.30 hrs with internet facility in the division has been established under NAIP Component 1, which has been used for various trainings in the institute.
For online Examination of ARS/NET, renovation of Agricultural Extension Block “D” of the Institute Building was done and one examination Hall of 100 candidates with Dias has been prepared.
The division has a Nodal Officer under PIMS-ICAR project and uploaded brief information of 102 ongoing projects of the institute with 20 completed projects on the project website.