Horticulture Division

Genetic Resources
Genetic resources of horticultural crops viz., citrus (20), guava (15), peach (3, Kiwifruit (5), passion fruit (5), plum (3), sohiong (2), sohshang (2), ginger (124), turmeric (191), king chilli (6), chilli (10), tomato (23), brinjal (25), french bean (48), dolichos bean (12), ash gourd (6), bottle gourd (6), chow-chow (4), pumpkin (5), sweet potato (15), colocasia (40), gerbera (45) and orchid (19) were maintained in field gene bank of Horticulture Farm.
Standardization of rootstock
Rangpur lime, C. taiwanica and C. reshni were found promising rootstock for Khasi mandarin, guava
Four genotypes viz., RCG-11, RCGH-1, RCGH-4 and RCGH-7 were found promising and included under AICRP on Sub-Tropical fruits.Wedge grafting technique (>80%) during Feb - March on one year old rootstock was found suitable under sub tropics of Meghalaya.
Peach
Shoot pruning during last week of October advanced the fruit maturity by 12-15 days in peach cv. Partap.
Rejuvenation of senile trees of peach through heading back of primary branches showed promise.
Cultivar Partap gave maximum yield (6.31 kg/tree) under high density planting at 3rd years.
Strawberry
Among the 16 varieties evaluated, Camarosa, Ofra, Festival and Sweet Charlie were found suitable for Meghalaya. Planting between 15th to 30th September with black /double colored polythene mulch was found suitable.
Spray of GA3 @ 40ppm in the last week of May resulted maximum runner’s production.
Off season production technology under low tunnels (50% shade net) during July- August produced fruits 30-35 days earlier. Planting in November under polythene tunnels extended fruit availability up to 47 days.
Underutilized fruits
Sohiong (Prunus nepalensis) fruit was found to be fairly to good source of anthocyanin (193.38 to 407.73 mg/100g), ‘b’ carotene (8.97 to 33.18 mg/100 g), total antioxidants (7.88 to 12.25 m mol trolox/g) and minerals. Tongue and wedge grafting on one year old rootstock of pencil thickness during second week of Oct. (> 80%) was found suitable.
Sohshang (Elaeagnus latifolia) fruit was observed to be rich in fibre (5.48%), phosphorus (95 mg/100 g), total potassium (487 mg/100 g) and iron (16.82 mg/100 g) content.
Vegetables
Megha Tomato-3 variety developed through hybridization (Pusa Sheetal x Lima) followed by pedigree selection had been released by Meghalaya state during 2010. It is tolerant to bacterial wilt and low temperatures with yield potential of 500-550q/ha. Proposal for its notification had been submitted.
Advanced line Megha Tomato-1 (Indeterminate), under AICRP vegetable crops trial at AVT-II stage performed well and stood second highest yielder (363.75 q/ha).
Off-season production of tomato under low- cost polyhouse
Out of six genotypes, hybrid Rocky produced highest yield under low-cost polyhouse planted during November. However, TSS and ascorbic acid were highest in Megha Tomato –2 (6.5.0ºB and 25.2 mg/100g respectively) and lycopene in Selection –2 (37.76 mg/100g).
Bacterial wilt tolerance lines of brinjal
Advanced lines viz., RCMBL-1 (included AICVIP trial), RCMBL-2 and RCMBL-3 having high yield potential (400-550q/ha) were found tolerant to bacterial wilt.
Standardization of package of practices for broccoli
Fiesta, Aishwarya, Lucky, Pushpa hybrids and variety Palam Vichitra grown during last week of September to mid October at the spacing of 45 x 30cm with application of FYM @ 20 t/ha and N:P:K @ 150:60:60 kg/ha were found suitable under mid hills of Meghalaya.
Quality analysis of chilli genotypes
Different genotypes were evaluated for yield and quality characters. The highest yield of green chilli was recorded from RCC-04-12-1(339 q/ha) followed by RCC-24 (280q/ha) and RCC-04-10-1 (270 q/ha). Colour value estimate ranged from 28.86 ASTA unit (RCC-04-24-1) to 135.75 (RCC-04-7) ASTA unit.
French bean
Six advance lines of French bean have been selected. The genotype RCMFB-1 has been included in AICRP. Proposed for multiplication trial in different locations of the region.
Identification of Photo-insensitive Dolichos bean
RCDL-10 (bush type), a photo-insensitive line suitable for growing from April to November was identified. First harvesting can be done after 75 days of sowing with average yield of 140-150 q /ha green pod. It is found to be tolerant against aphids, leaf spot and powdery mildew.
Colocasia
Two high yielding colocasia genotypes, viz. ML-1 (227 q/ha) and ML-2 (220 q/ha) have been identified whereas, ML-1 showed tolerant against Phytophthora leaf blight.
Black polythene mulch is the best mulching material for controlling weeds in colocasia followed by transparent white polythene.
Evaluation of Indigenous Leafy vegetables
Twenty five locally available leafy vegetables viz., Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Fagopyrum cymosum, Justica sp., Rauvolfia sp., Rheum sp., Piper sp., Centella asiatica, Plantago major, Alisma sp., Monochoria sp., Adhatoda viscia, Eeringium foetidum, Leucas aspera, Homalomena sp., Begonia sp., Abelmoschus sp., Mentha arvensis, Spilanthes acemellla, Brassica sp., Bacopa monnieri, Amaranthus sp., Amaranthus viridis, Comelina bangelensis, Colocasia esculenta, Oxalis corniculata, Rumex sp., Chenopodium album etc. were collected and evaluated.
Floriculture
Gerbera
Gerbera cultivars viz., Piton, Monarch, Pink Elegance, Sazou, Rosalin and Salvadore were identified for commercial cultivation under low/medium cost polyhouse. However, Alesmera, Black Heart, Divas Memory, RCGH-117, RCGH-113, RCGH-114 and RCGH-76 were found suitable for open conditions.
Vase solution containing sucrose (2%) + Aluminum Sulphate (300ppm) found best for enhancing vase life (16 days) of gerbera ‘Black Heart’.
Gladiolus
Gladiolus cultivars viz., Jester Gold, American Beauty, Candyman, White Prosperity, Pusa Jyotsena, Pusa Gunjan and Priscilla were found to be suitable for cut flower, corm and cormel production. Corms soaked with BAP (25 and 50 ppm) for 24 hours before planting increased number of corms and cormels.
Standardization of protocol for in-vitro propagation of rare and endangered native orchids and hybrids.
Efficient and reproducible in-vitro mass propagation methods of Vanda coerulea, Dendrobium nobile, Cymbidium giganteum were standardized.
Standardization process for Cymbidium elegans, C.aloifolium,C.mastersii and Cymbidium hybrids using different explants and conditionsis in progress.
Post-Harvest Technology Protocols for preparation of tuity fruity from chow-chow (Sechium edule SW.) and instant ginger candy had been developed. Standardized the packaging design for long distance (500 Km) transportation of ginger. Optimized ready-to-cook (RTC) green Jackfruits slices in brine solution with treatment: 8% NaCl + 0.2% KMS extended storage life of >12 months. Standardized the protocols for King chilli sauce by using jack fruit seed as thickener.